A social networking service (also social networking site’, SNS or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Most social-network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as by e-mail, by instant messaging and through online forums. NSI is applying analogies and results from social networks design and analysis to communication networks.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. Electrical grids vary in size from covering a single building through national grids which cover whole countries, to transnational grids which can cross continents. INS develops algorithms for electric grid stability control including pricing mechanisms.
INS is doing research in the field of: Network Sciences, Network Optimization, Topology design, SDN and Network Virtualization, Network Slicing, Routing, Network Economics, Spectrum Sharing, Business models in networking, Artificial Intelligence in Networking, Network stability control, Cognitive Networks, Network Security, Block Chain Technology, IoT, Low Latency Networks
DTN concept in space networks
Each node of the DTN architecture can store information for a long time before forwarding it. Thanks to these features, a DTN is particularly suited to cope with the challenges imposed by space communication over the network with intermittent connectivity (visibility) and random interruptions between the nodes. The DTN concept lies in a generalization of requirements identified for interplanetary networking (IPN), where latencies that may reach the order of tens of minutes, as well as limited and highly asymmetric bandwidth, must be faced. Delays and disruptions can be handled at each DTN hop in a path between a sender and a destination. Nodes on the path can provide the storage necessary for data in transit before forwarding it to the next node on the path. In consequence, the contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity that Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and other standard Internet transport protocols require in order to reliably transfer application data is not required. In practice, in standard TCP/IP networks, which assume continuous connectivity and short delays, routers perform non‐persistent (short‐ term) storage and information is persistently stored only at end nodes. In DTN networks, information is persistently (long‐term) stored at intermediate DTN nodes. This makes DTNs much more robust against disruptions, disconnections, and node failures.
INS provides designs for satellite constellation optimization that minimize latency in the network with minimum number of satellites in the orbit. In adition to providing the most economical solutions, for minimum latency in the network, this also sllows down the problem of building up the “basura espacial” which has been already recognized as a problem of the future explaration of the space
It is time to take the responsibility within our own profession for the future state of the space rather than to wait for warnings from Hollywood or future Green Space movements and parties.
Bitcoin is a worldwide cryptocurrency and digital payment system called the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central repository or single administrator. It was invented by an unknown programmer, or a group of programmers, under the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009. The system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain.
Blockchain is a public ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A novel solution accomplishes this without any trusted central authority: the maintenance of the blockchain is performed by a network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software. Transactions of the form payer X sends Y bitcoins to payee Z are broadcast to this network using readily available software applications. Network nodes can validate transactions, add them to their copy of the ledger, and then broadcast these ledger additions to other nodes. The blockchain is a distributed database – to achieve independent verification of the chain of ownership of any and every bitcoin amount, each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain.
Double-spending is an error in a digital cash scheme in which the same single digital token is spent more than once. This is possible because a digital token consists of a digital file that can be duplicated or falsified. As with counterfeit money, such double-spending leads to inflation by creating a new amount of fraudulent currency that did not previously exist. This devalues the currency relative to other monetary units, and diminishes user trust as well as the circulation and retention of the currency. Fundamental cryptographic techniques to prevent double-spending while preserving anonymity in a transaction are blind signatures and particularly in offline systems, secret splitting. INS provides special network design protocols for early warning of double spending attempts.